Overview

In 2016, it was estimated that only 73% of people living with HIV in Viet Nam had been diagnosed. The majority of the
remaining 27%, those with undiagnosed HIV, are part of a key population group, including people who inject drugs,
men who have sex with men, female sex workers and their sexual partners. HIV testing coverage through conventional
facility-based testing services remains low with only 36% of people who inject drugs, 41% of female sex workers and 43% of men who have sex with men receiving an HIV test in 2016. To achieve the first 90 target – diagnosis of 90% of people with HIV – the government of Viet Nam estimated that HIV testing coverage among key populations must increase to at least 80%.

To increase HIV testing among key populations and achieve coverage targets, the government of Viet Nam implemented rapid testing for HIV and testing for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis between December 2015 and October 2017 in eight provinces.. This was done through mobile outreach, conducted by peer lay providers from key population groups, using self-testing and partner notification/index partner testing among key populations and their partners. Multi-disease testing was also promoted to increase uptake of testing services. Sexual partners of HIV-positive men who have sex with men were contacted and offered HIV testing using social media. Partners of HIV-positive female sex workers were offered HIV testing through client and lay provider referral. Active follow up for three to four months was needed for all PLHIV to successfully prompt information about partners and an additional three to four months to contact, offer and deliver HIV testing to partners of PLHIV. 

Mobilizing

WHAT

Social media outreach through
community and partners of
PLHIV

WHEN

Targeted time to reach a
specific population;
Any time for HIVST

WHERE

Social media  
Community outreach

WHO

Peer providers

Testing

WHAT

Rapid HIV testing;
multidisease testing
(HCV and syphilis);
and HIV self-testing

WHEN

3-6 monthly for those at
highest risk

WHERE

Health facilities
Community outreach

WHO

Peer providers

Linking

WHAT

For prevention:
comprehensive package
of prevention tools
For ART initiation: peer
navigation to ART clinic

WHEN

Active follow up
for 3-6 months

WHERE

To selected treatment
and/or prevention site

WHO

Peer and lay providers

Summary of evidence

In 2017, community-led HIV testing was implemented and reached 2,520 people from key populations; 67% were first-time testers. Of those tested, 2,094 received lay provider testing and 426 received HIV self-testing. In total, 147 of those tested had reactive results (5.8%) and 140 of those 147 (96.6%) were confirmed as positive. Of the 140 HIV-positive cases, 128 (91%) received ART. Community-led index partner testing identified 19.3% of all HIVpositive cases (27/140). Provincial-level analysis showed community HTS diagnosed 30% and 60% of all HIV cases in Can Tho and Thai Nguyen provinces.

Location

Community-led approaches for key populations
Viet Nam