HIV self-testing implementation through community-based distribution and VMMC models reached 26% and 68% of
first-time testers, respectively. Uptake of HIV self-testing was highest among young people (50%) and men (49%).
Secondary distribution to male partners of pregnant women was shown to increase uptake of HIV testing among men
receiving standard of care invitation letters from 17% to 92% when HIV self-testing was offered.
Overall, HIV positivity was approximately 5%, with 1% positivity among men at VMMC sites, 1% positivity among
men in secondary distribution, and 4% positivity in community-based distribution. This is comparable to average positivity of 3% in facilities in Malawi. When home-based ART initiation was offered, linkage was three times higher than referral to facilities.