National Policies


In 2018 the Angolan Ministry of Health, together with the National Institute for the Fight Against AIDS, published an operational guide for their test and treat strategy Projecto Piloto Luanada.   This guide specifies criteria for determining clinical stability and eligibility for three-monthly ART refills (3MMD) with annual clinical review.


In 2020, the Botswana Ministry of Health and Wellness updated the national guideline for integrated community-based health services. This guide outlines a minimum package of integrated community-based health interventions and how they should be delivered to provide comprehensive care to people in their communities across a number of areas including prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV infection and tuberculosis, select noncommunicable diseases, reproductive health, and maternal and child health. It also includes a COVID-19 curriculum for community health workers. Recommended service delivery models include targeted home visits by community health workers, peer-to-peer communication, and (adherence) support groups. Through adherence groups, community health workers provide refills and distribute treatment for stable clients (for HIV and treatment of other chronic conditions).

Burkina Faso

In 2020 the Ministry of Health in Burkina Faso published a guide for implementing six monthly ART dispensation (6MMD), known as Ravi6M.  This individual treatment model can be implemented in facility or community settings.


In 2020 the Ministry of Public Health in Burundi and the National Programme to Combat HIV/AIDS and STIs, published national guidelines and an implementation plan for HIV treatment and prevention in Burundi.  These documents outline HIV DSD treatment strategies such as multi-month ART dispensing and community ART distribution points (PODI).


In 2017, the Ministry of Public Health in Cameroon published Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the Test and Treat Strategy in Cameroon.  These guidelines detail differentiated HIV services for clinically stable clients, including three monthly ART dispensing (3MMD) and clinical monitoring.

Central African Republic (CAR)

In November 2018, the Ministry of Health in the Central African Republic (CAR) together with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) launched a toolkit based on experiences in programmatic implementation of Community ART Groups (CAGs) and Pharmacy Fast Track (PFT) in conflict and unstable settings in Zemio (Haut-Mbomou) and Boguila (Ouham) in CAR. The toolkit provides the knowledge and tools to implement community models of HIV care (CAGs and PFT) including; set up, follow up, monitoring and evaluation in conflict/unstable settings.

Cote D’Ivoire

On 25 March 2020, the Cote d’Ivoire Ministry of Public Health and Hygiene, with the National AIDS Control Programme, published a contingency plan for the programme in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. It details two scenarios for the continuation of the programme, depending on the stage of the pandemic.

In 2019, the Ministry released a circular with guidelines for HIV treatment and prevention services, which allows for up to six-month ART dispensing (6MMD).

Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

In 2020, the National HIV/AIDS and STI Control Programme (PNLS) of the DRC Ministry of Health released a circular detailing changes to established service provision for people living with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic.  This notice detailed expansion of multi-month ART dispensation (MMD), including immediate MMD provision for eligible clients and broader provision of 6MMD.

In 2018, the Ministry developed both an operational plan and an operational manual to implement DSD for people living with HIV. It outlines different context- and population-specific models, including community ART distribution points, and recommends three- to six-month ART refills for stable clients (3-6MMD). The operational manual also includes guidance for service providers on HIV/TB service integration.

Dominican Republic

In 2021, the Ministry of Public Health in the Dominican Republic published an implementation strategy for differentiated service delivery for HIV treatment for adults living with HIV and an operational manual on differentiated service delivery for integrated treatment for adults living with HIV. The guidance includes DSD for HIV treatment models for key populations, people with unsuppressed viral loads and those affected by co-infections and co-morbidities. Clients considered “stable” are now offered follow-up visits every six months and multi-month dispensing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a minimum of three to six months.

In 2016, the Ministry of Public Health in the Dominican Republic released a national guide for HIV care, which recommended multi-month dispensing of ART for certain stable client groups, up to a maximum of three months. 


On 22 April 2020, the Eswatini Director of Health Services published a memorandum, Guidance on Provision of Chronic Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic, which informs the management of clients with chronic conditions, including HIV and non-communicable diseases. HIV-specific guidance differentiates care for adults, children and perinatal women and includes information on contraception and viral load monitoring. In the same month, the Ministry of Health released the Community Commodity Distribution Concept Note, which proposes the use of a hybrid of its current DSD models for commodity distribution. The aim is to enable sustainable access to a broad spectrum of HIV-related treatments while reducing risk of COVID-19 exposure for people living with HIV and other health service users.

The Eswatini National AIDS Programme’s National Policy Guidelines for Community-Centred Models of ART Service Delivery (June 2016) recognizes the need for differentiation throughout the treatment pathway and provides specific guidance for management of stable clients. The guidelines are accompanied by a set of standard operating procedures (SOPs), published in 2018, including SOPs for community-centred models of HIV testing and ART service delivery for key populations.


The Ethiopian Ministry of Health published Interim Guidance for Management of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Context of COVID-19 Outbreak in Ethiopia. Second Edition in May 2020. This document includes specific facility-level guidance on differentiated services for ART provision, as well as information on mitigation of the spread of COVID-19 in communities affected by HIV. Strengthening community-based services for HIV treatment to deliver ART at community sites is among the recommended strategies to ensure continuity of care and containment of COVID-19. The Implementation Guide for Community-Based Differentiated ART Delivery Models in Ethiopia, released August 2020, provides guidance around community ART refills and peer-led community ART distribution. 

In August 2018, Ethiopia released National Consolidated Guidelines for Comprehensive HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment, with a section (5.1) on “Differentiated HIV service delivery”. The guidelines recommend an appointment spacing model (ASM) where clients are appointed every six months for clinical visit and medication refill. Clients defined as stable also receive additional support such as arrangements of treatment supporter home visits and adherence reminders. 


On 16 March 2020, the Ghana Health Service released Guidance for the Care of Persons Living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Wake of COVID-19, which details various measures to ensure smooth continuation of HIV services, including reinforcement of multi-month scripting (3 or 6 multi-month dispensation).

In December 2017, the Ghana National AIDS Control Programme launched Differentiated service delivery for HIV in Ghana: An Operational Manual, which was developed with several collaborators. The manual focuses on the “how” of differentiated HIV care and includes differentiated HIV testing services, differentiated ART initiation and differentiated ART delivery (including for clients with high viral load and clients with co-infections and co-morbidities). Throughout the document, considerations are provided for specific populations, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, children and adolescents, and key populations.


In 2019, the Guinea Ministry of Health and the National HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis Programme developed an implementation guide for six-monthly (6MMD) antiretroviral therapy refills, locally known as “Rendez-vous à six mois”.


PEPFAR in Haiti, together with USAID and EQUIP, published a document detailing eligibility criteria for their six-month ART refill (6MMD) programme, with mention of integration with existing community models.


On 23 March 2020, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released its Guidance Note for Persons engaged in HIV/AIDS response under National AIDS Control Programme in view of the COVID-19 scenario. In addition to general COVID-19 precautions for the programme facilities, the note gives specific guidance on ART dispensation, including multi-month and community dispensing. It also mentions commodity distribution within specific vulnerable groups.

The Ministry published National Technical Guidelines on Anti Retroviral Treatment in 2018.  These detail eligibility criteria for multi-month ART dispensation for different population groups.


On 24 August 2020, the Ministry of Health released Updated Operational Guidance on Continuity of Health Services in HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Included in this update is information guidance on multi-month dispensing (MMD) for PrEP, as well as updated guidance on managing MMD of ART.  Earlier COVID-19 guidance from the Ministry recommended promotion of flexible ART delivery models, such as community ART group distribution, among other measures.

Since 2016, the Kenyan Ministry of Health, through the National AIDS & STI Control Programme (NASCOP), has included provision for differentiated service delivery (DSD) in national guidelines. New Guidelines on Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for Treating and Preventing HIV in Kenya were launched in 2018, including guidance on DSD for clients who have advanced disease and those who are clinically well. To accompany the guidelines and practical handbook, NASCOP released Differentiated Care: Operational Guide in January 2017. 


A document issued in 2017 details eligibility for differentiated models of care and three to six monthly ART refills with community distribution.


In 2020, the Ministry of Health in Lesotho released Approach to the Management of Advanced HIV Disease (AHD).  This recommends differentiation of services for stable clients in order to reduce clinical visit frequency and enable health facilities to focus resources on those who require more intensive clinical support.  It includes section 4.5.3 “Differentiated service delivery for AHD clients”.

On 9 July 2020, the Ministry released Coronavirus Disease – 2019 (COVID-19) Screening, Testing, Clinical Management, and Prevention of COVID-19 Guidelines for Clinicians, including a section pertaining to HIV (page 30).  This section details changes to various DSD initiatives including increased uptake of multi-month ART refills (MMD) for stable clients, MMD for TB preventative therapy and supporting telephonic follow-ups among unstable people living with HIV. Further, the guidelines noted that additional community ART delivery models may be introduced by the Ministry.  These guidelines compliment the April 2020 memo HIV program services delivery COVID 19 lock down guidance that advocated for health facilities to promote and facilitate community ART groups.

In 2016, the Lesotho Ministry of Health released the National Guidelines on the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Prevention and Treatment. Fifth Edition that specify eligibility criteria for three to six month dispensing of ART (3-6MMD). The guidelines further mention decentralization of HIV services through community adherence groups (CAGs) and integration of HIV programmes with TB, maternal and child health and sexual and reproductive health services.


In September 2020, the Liberian National AIDS and STI Control Program (NACP) updated a standard operating procedure (SOP) on implementation of six monthly ART dispensation (6MMD) during the COVID-19 pandemic.  The document is to be used in conjunction with the Facility Assessment and Preparation Tool and details eligibility criteria for the 6MMD programme.  

On 25 March 2020, the Liberian Ministry of Health NACP published Interim Guidance for COVID-19 for all Persons with HIV, which includes recommendations for multi-month dispensation of antiretroviral therapies and telephonic feedback of viral load results.


On 14 August 2020, the Ministry of Health issued the 4th edition of the circular, Guidance for HIV Services during COVID-19 pandemic, which provides updated guidance on safe resumption of certain HIV services, including resumption of all community HIV services.  Earlier editions of this circular included introduction of six monthly dispensing (6MMD) for certain ART regimens, among other measures.

The 2019 Policy Updates Addendum to the 4th Edition of the Malawi integrated Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures for Clinical HIV Services details amendments to the 2018 Clinical Management of HIV in Children and Adults. This document details three to six-month ART refills (3-6MMD) with six monthly clinical consultations.


In November 2020, the Directorate of Public Health in Mozambique approved a new policy supporting a maximum duration of ART for 6 months. This is currently being scaled up in Maputo City and piloted in another province.

On 27 March 2020, the Mozambique Directorate of Public Health released a circular on HIV service delivery in the context of COVID-19. This circular contains guidance on changes within HIV prevention, testing and treatment service packages, including expansion of three-monthly ART refills and adaptations of Mozambique’s community ART groups to support physical distancing.

In 2018, the Ministry of Health in Mozambique released two modules of guidance on DSD. The first focuses on differentiated prevention and testing services and the second on differentiated ART delivery, including community ART groups and family-centred approaches. This guidance complements the 2015 document on community adherence and support group strategies.


In 2019, the National AIDS Programme of the Ministry of Health and Sports in Myanmar released the Operational Manual on Planning and Provision of HIV services at Health Facilities.  This documents details eligibility criteria for extended ART refills of three to six months (3-6MMD) delivered through a ‘fast-track’ refill approach. 


In 2019, the Ministry of Health and Social Services in Namibia released the sixth edition of their National Guidelines for Antiretroviral Therapy to align with new recommendations from the World Health Organization. Chapter 9 on ‘Differentiated Services(sic) Delivery’ outlines various facility-based and out-of-facility models as well as ART multi-month dispensing guidelines.


In 2020 the Government of Nepal’s Ministry of Health and Population National Centre for AIDS and STD Control published National HIV Testing and Treatment Guidelines.  This document permits up to six-month ART refills for eligible clients and details decentralized ART dispensing and community-based ART centres.


In 2016, the Federal Ministry of Health in Nigeria released revised National Guidelines for HIV Prevention, Treatment and Care. In addition to recommending that all people living with HIV initiate ART, the guidelines included a chapter on service delivery. In Chapter 9, four broad categories of people living with HIV are outlined as per World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. A specific package of care is described for clinically stable clients, including three-monthly clinical consultations, three-monthly (3MMD) ART refills and community ART delivery models.

Papua New Guinea

In 2019, the National Department of Health in Papua New Guinea published Papua New Guinea National Guidelines for HIV Care and Treatment.  DSD is specifically included in Chapter 6 (Service Delivery), which details up to six-month ART dispensation (6MMD) and various community ART refill models.


In 2020, the Ministry of Health in Rwanda published National Guidelines for Prevention and Management of HIV, which details the country’s appointment spacing DSD model (pages 83 and 84).  An updated DSD flow chart was issued in 2021, which differentiates between three categories of clients who are established on ART (defined in this document as ‘stable’) and thus eligible for either six or three monthly clinical and pharmacy ART refill visits.


The guide for the management of HIV in Senegal details eligibility criteria for three to six-month ART refills (3-6MMD) and endorses community dispensation models.

Sierra Leone

In May 2020, the National HIV/AIDS Control Programme published COVID-19 guidance on comprehensive HIV service delivery. It includes recommendations for same-day ART initiation and possible multi-month dispensing of ART, drug supply logistics in the event of a complete lockdown and details on suspension of outreach services.

In May 2018, the Ministry of Health and Sanitation in Sierra Leone, with support from UNAIDS, set out its country guidance on DSD in the Guide of Differentiated care model in Sierra Leone: Who feels it knows. The guidance covers the continuum of care from HIV testing to ART delivery for stable clients and highlights differentiation for men, adolescents and key populations. It specifically defines a stable child and differentiated ART delivery models for children and adolescents. It also includes differentiated viral load testing approaches. 

South Africa

The South African National Department of Health has published two COVID-19-specific guidance documents related to HIV. Guidance to Implementing Partners Regarding Managing Clients on Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) during State of Emergency (sic) COVID-19 (26 March 2020) details procedures for managing new and existing PrEP clients during the country’s COVID-19 lockdown. Response to reduce risk among HIV and TB patients within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: The South African response to COVID-19 (17 April 2020) details facility-specific measures to reduce COVID-19 exposure and makes specific recommendations for scaling up multi-month dispensation and use of external pick-up points.

Early in 2020, the health department revised the standard operating procedures for the national Adherence Guidelines for HIV, TB and NCDs, including modifying eligibility for and procedures of repeat prescription collection strategies (RPCSs) for clinically stable clients. It outlines details of facility pick-up points, facility and community adherence clubs, external pick-up points and how to do drug switches for RPCS clients.  

The department launched the updated National Strategic Plan for HIV, TB and STIs 2017-2022 on 31 March 2017. It states that all people living with one or more of the three diseases covered by the National Strategic Plan (NSP) will have access to DSD. A document summarizing the goals and objectives of the updated NSP highlights DSD as a “game-changer”.

The Southern African HIV Clinicians Society published guidelines in 2017 recommending strategies to support adolescents and young adults in achieving and maintaining viral suppression. These are the first in sub-Saharan Africa to recognize the need to differentiate service delivery models for stable or unstable adolescents and young adults either in or after their first year of treatment. In the same year, the society released a supplement guideline on HIV self-testing.

South Sudan

In April 2020, the Ministry of Health in South Sudan issued HIV programme Guidance in the context of COVID-19 Pandemic, which includes recommendations for three to six monthly ART dispensing (3-6MMD) and maximizing community-based ART distribution.

In 2017, the Ministry published Consolidated Clinical Guidelines on Use of Antiretroviral Drugs for HIV Treatment and Prevention, detailing various facility and community-based DSD models as well as guidance for up to three-month ART refills (3MMD).


In 2020, the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children published the updated Interim Guidance on Provision of HIV Prevention and Care Services in the Context of COVID-19 Outbreak in Tanzania - Second Edition, which aims to ensure uninterrupted service provision for people living with HIV, while implementing standard precautions against COVID-19.

In 2019, the ministry's National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) launched the National Accelerated Action Plan on HIV Testing Services along with the National Comprehensive Guidelines on HIV Testing Services. The latter recommends a differentiated testing approach, including special considerations for children and adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as key and other vulnerable populations.  The same year, the Ministry and NACP published National Guidelines for the Management of HIV and AIDS (7th Edition).  This comprehensive document includes section 2.4 on “Differentiated Service Delivery Models (DSDMs)”, which recommends using the building blocks approach to design appropriate service delivery models that take into account the needs of specific populations.  Learn more about the building blocks approach here.  

In a joint effort, the ministry and the International Training and Education Centre for Health released HIV Service Delivery Models: Mapping HIV Service Delivery Strategies in Tanzania in 2017.



In March 2020, the Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene in Togo issued an emergency order, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, allowing for three monthly ART dispensing (3MMD) to all people on ART.

In 2019, the Ministry released a guide to comprehensive care for people living with HIV.  This document details eligibility criteria for entry into the three to six month extended ART refill (3-6MMD) programme with six monthly clinical consultation.   


In Uganda, the Ministry of Health published COVID-19 Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for HIV & TB Services Delivery in April 2020. It includes recommendations to reduce congestion at health facilities and suspension of some community-based services. This document is supported by Frequently Asked Questions by Health Care Providers Regarding HIV and TB Service Delivery During COVID-19 Lockdown (April 2020), which provides practical guidance on HIV and TB service delivery issues.

In early 2020, the ministry published updated Consolidated guidelines for prevention and treatment of HIV in Uganda.  This comprehensive document includes section 10.1 “Differentiated Service Delivery”, which recommends using the building blocks approach to design appropriate service delivery models that take into account the needs of specific populations.  Learn more about the building blocks approach here.  This guideline is supported by Implementation guide for Differentiated Service Delivery Models (DSDM) for HIV and TB services in Uganda (version March 2020).


The 2021 Guidelines for Management of Advanced HIV Disease in Zambia include a section dedicated to DSD for advanced HIV disease, which includes guidance for integration of services for non-communicable diseases. 

On 24 March 2020, the Zambian Ministry of Health published a circular, Multi-Month Dispensation and use of TLE/TLD during the COVID-19 pandemic, recommending the promotion of three or six monthly (3MMD or 6MMD) dispensation and temporary replacement of Tenofovir Lamivudine Dolutegravir (TLD) with Tenofovir Lamivudine Efavirenz (TLE) until adequate TLD stocks are available.

In 2020 updated Consolidated Guidelines for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection were released.  These reinforce the DSD for HIV treatment related recommendations of the previous 2018 guideline and extend multi month ART refills to six months (6MMD) for eligible adults.


The Zimbabwean Ministry of Health and Child Care released Rapid Guidance on HIV Service Delivery in COVID-19 Context on 26 March 2020. This aims to ensure continuity of HIV services while mitigating risk for COVID-19 and includes specific guidance on multi-month antiretroviral therapy dispensation (MMD), as well as alterations to prevention services. Its job aide for healthcare workers, COVID-19 and HIV (April 2020), supports the guidance document and suggests telephonic and social messaging for treatment monitoring and psychosocial support.

The ministry updated its Operational and Service Delivery Manual for the Prevention, Care and Treatment of HIV in Zimbabwe in February 2017. It sets out “how” to implement WHO’s 2016 clinical guidelines, including DSD, across the entire HIV cascade from testing to viral suppression. The manual also includes standard operating procedures and outlines the five-step process for deciding how to differentiate service delivery at a district level. To accompany the manual, the ministry also developed the Consolidated HIV and AIDS Job Aide that includes checklists, clinical algorithms and educational tools to support implementation.